If I could give you one piece of advice: never sleep with anyone crazier than yourself. But if I had to give you advice on locking: keep it simple.
Be reluctant to introduce new locks.
Strangely enough, this last one is the exact reverse of my advice when you have slept with someone crazier than yourself. And you should think about getting a big dog.
There are two main types of kernel locks. The fundamental type is the spinlock (include/asm/spinlock.h), which is a very simple single-holder lock: if you can't get the spinlock, you keep trying (spinning) until you can. Spinlocks are very small and fast, and can be used anywhere.
The second type is a semaphore (include/asm/semaphore.h): it can have more than one holder at any time (the number decided at initialization time), although it is most commonly used as a single-holder lock (a mutex). If you can't get a semaphore, your task will put itself on the queue, and be woken up when the semaphore is released. This means the CPU will do something else while you are waiting, but there are many cases when you simply can't sleep (see Chapter 9), and so have to use a spinlock instead.
Neither type of lock is recursive: see Section 7.1.